There are many graphing calculators as well as other normal calculators that can be programmed to carry out frequently used complex calculations in an automated way. Most of these functions are otherwise difficult to be carried out via keyboards. The basic programming required for these calculators can first be carried out in a computer and can then be uploaded in a calculator.
The basic tools that are used in this transfer include software and a PC link cable that is compatible with the given calculator. You will also require specialized programming tools and text editors that can be configured, like TextPad. Other tools that are required include a hex editor, scripting and macro facilities, source code management and snippet library functions that have the ability to edit different media's like File Allocation Tables and clusters on a disc.
Calculators used in the years gone by made use of magnetic discs for storing programs. The need was however felt to increase this memory capacity to a considerable level. Thus, the memory cards were developed specifically for this purpose. Many TI calculators are known to make use of character codes like ISO 8859 to tokenize different codes meant for different functions or programs. However, other calculators belonging to HP and TI-92 Plus categories read the code directly as is the case with most computers that perform functions like Chr, Asc, Chr$, and so on.
Te burgeoning internet is a wonderful medium to get programming information of graphing calculators. There are many dedicated websites here that provide users with details related to network tools, browsers, email, chat, word processors, SSH/telnet, spreadsheets, and so on. The basic programming languages that these calculators make use of are similar to the variants of Basic and macro languages. In fact, the former type provides features that are also seen in computers like string and character manipulation, graphics, sound, branching and conditional statements and so on. The programming languages used in graphing calculators fall into different categories like high-level, mid-level, low-level, and machine codes for carrying out scripting, programming and other functions.
Graphing calculators that are capable of being connected to computers can be programmed either in machine code or assembly language. Some of these languages include Zilog-80, TMS9900. Other programming languages that are often used include variants of Lisp, Forth, and Eiffel. Programming languages like C, Python, COBOL, ALGOL, Delphi, and Tcl are now being worked upon to enable them to be included in the primary list of languages. Some graphing calculators especially that make use of PDA-like applications make use of TI proprietary operating systems in their latest system. Experiments are however on to include TI-92, 89, 92+ and others shortly.
Spreadsheets are made available in most graphing calculators these days. They are usually integrated with Microsoft Excel on the computer. However, the spreadsheets that make use of automation and macro facilities at the calculator side is still being worked upon and is not yet available in the market. In some cases, data grid, matrix and list facilities can be used along side with programming languages to give an effect of spreadsheets.